Introducing the Four Political Types: The Political Philosophy of Moeller van den Bruck

March 10th, 2021

Post by Steppanwulf

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Written, researched, edited, and assembled by Steppanwulf (January 2021).

[video transcript]

In his most important work, Germany's Third Empire, Moeller van den Bruck called for a new German Reich wherein overcoming the liberal paradigm of the political structure of Western Europe is essential. Bruck outlined four major distinctions to which the common man aligns his political leanings: Revolutionary, Reactionary, Liberal, and Conservative.

Revolutionary: The Revolutionary, a.k.a the "Radical", is synonymous with the Marxian view of society, where nation-states could easily be transformed via a social revolution, not taking into account historical norms and truths. A nation's tradition, its customs, and its history cannot be eradicated by merely calling for a new order into the future. Bruck dismissed the type as being conditioned by a materialistic (false) conception of the world.

"The materialist conception of history, which gives economics greater weight than man, is a denial of history; it denies all spiritual virtues...Man revolts against the merely animal in himself; he is filled with the determination not to live for bread alone - or, at a later stage, not alone for economics - he achieves consciousness of his human dignity. The materialist conception of history has never taken cognizance of these things. It has concentrated on half man's history: and the less creditable half." - Bruck.

The Revolutionary Marxist, therefore, erroneously viewed man as a mere animal motivated solely by economic outcome, when in fact he is - aware or not - guided primarily by spiritual forces. Marx's total rejection of the differences between ethnic groups, social and psychological conditioning, social customs and national traditions is glaringly self-evident to Bruck.

Liberals: The Liberal, Bruck asserted, shuns societal responsibility to his Volk and his nation-state, having no future plans nor any pride for his nation's past accomplishments and traditions. Further, the Liberal doesn't care about his fellow man, for he is indeed merely concerned for his own personal gains advantages, with no regard to the past or the future state...

"Liberalism is the party of upstarts who have insinuated themselves between the people and its big men. Liberals feel themselves as isolated individuals, responsible to nobody. They do not share the nation's traditions, they are indifferent to its past and have no ambition for its future. They seek only their own personal advantage in the present. Their dream is the great international, in which the differences of peoples and languages, races and cultures will be obliterated." - Bruck.

Reactionary and Conservative: Within the standard political paradigm, Reactionaries and Conservatives are often viewed as indistinguishable. However, Bruck stated that there are in fact important differences: Reactionaries merely advocate for the re-institutionalising of previous forms and social orders, compatible with the modern world or not. In describing the futility of this mindset, he argued thus...

"The Reactionary reading of history is as superficial as the Conservative's is profound. The Reactionary sees the world as he has known it; the Conservative sees it as it has been and will always be. He distinguishes the transitory from the eternal. Exactly what has been, can never be again. But what the world has once brought forth she can bring forth again." - Bruck.

Thus, while the Reactionary is merely preoccupied with reviving past forms, the Conservative actually understands the true essence of the world; the natural order of life. It is true that societies, nations, and often traditions evolve and change, but this may in fact be a necessary evolution in order to conserve the natural order.

Bruck's idealistic conception of the Conservative is far more dynamic than the other three political types, for he attempts to preserve the values, customs, and eternal truths which are beneficial to the nation while simultaneously accepting of new values and practices, provided they are conducive to the well-being of the nation-state and its people.

"The Conservative has no ambition to see the world as a museum; he prefers it as a workshop, where he can create things which will serve as new foundations. His thought differs from the Revolutionary's in that it does not trust things which were hastily begotten in the chaos of upheaval; things have a value for him only when they possess certain stability. Stable values spring from tradition." - Bruck.

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